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Orthopedics is concerned with the correction or prevention of deformities, disorders, or injuries of the skeleton and associated structures, that is, joints, tendons, ligaments and related soft tissue.

Some of the more commonly performed orthopedic surgeries are :
Total Hip Replacement and Hip Joint Replacement

The most common hip problem is arthritis, which can be described as the progressive wearing away of the cartilage of the joint. As the cartilage deteriorates, bare bone is exposed within the joint. Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) is the most widespread form, caused by trauma to the joint, infection og the joint, or age. Other forms  are rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, septic arthritis /infection of joints) and related autoimmune diseases   Other common causes are fractions, especially in older people,  and tumors.

Your surgeon might consider a total hip replacement  if  there are  serious arthritic conditions, because if the bone is not strong enough, there is a small but real risk of fracturing

Joint replacement should be considered when:

•    The pain is severe
•    The pain has not gotten better with other treatments, such as  physical threapy
•    The joint problem prevents from doing daily activities
•    A cane or walker is needed to walk

The degree of degeneration of the hip will determine whether the patient will undergo a hip replacement surgery or a total hip replacement. If  the regeneration is mostly in the joints, a hip replacement surgery might be considered. However, for a successful hip joint surgery, the bone must be undamaged. Otherwise, there is a risk of fracturei if the the bone is also damaged by arthritis, total hip replacement surgery might have to be performed. Statistically, hip joint surgeries are mostly preferred for people under 50 years younger and it is an option for an average of 7 out of a 100 patients.

The results of  both joint replacement  and total hip replacement are excellent. Your surgeon will give you exact instructions about wound care, pain control, diet, and exercise. Physical therapy is  a crucial part of recovery, expecially in the months after the surgery.

Total Hip replacement

Hip replacement is a major but common procedure in which the damaged bone and cartalage is  replaced by man-made parts. In this kind of surgery, there are many options in material choices, such as, polyethylene, cobalt-chrome alloy and ceramics. There are also choices in ball diameters and cup designs.  These options are advantageous as metal bearings might wear and release debris and metal ions. This poses an additional disadvantage, especially for females of childbearing age as the effects of metal ions on fetus is not known.  

In a total hip replacement surgery:

•    The Femoral bone is removed and replaced with a stem which is placed into the hollow center, either by cementing or press fitted (uncemeted).
•    A ball (metal or ceramic) is placed on the upper part of the stem, replacing the damaged femoral head.
•    The degenerated cartilage surface of the socket (acetabulum) is replaced with a socket. A spacer is placed between the ball and socket to allow a smooth gliding surface.




General anesthesia

Hospital Stay

3-10 days

Healing time

Short term healing
Full recovery 3-6 months

Hip Joint Replacement:

Hip joint replacement is a surgical procedure in which certain parts of an arthritic or damaged joint are removed and replaced with an artificial joint.

Hip joint replacement is surgery to replace all or part of the hip joint with a man-made or artificial joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis. The artificial hip joint has 4 parts:

•    The hip socket is replaced aby an artificial socket, usually made of metal
•    A liner is placed inside the socket. It is usually plastic, but some surgeons use ceramic and metal. The liner allows the hip to move smoothly.
•    A metal or ceramic ball replaces the round head (top) of your thighbone.
•    A metal stem that is attached to the shaft of the bone


1-3 hours (per side)


General anesthesia

Hospital Stay

2-3 days

Healing time

Short term healing
Full recovery 6 weeks – 3 months

Spine surgery

The term Spine surgery is a general term and encompasses many types of surgeries in the spine. Major factors leading to a spine surgery are:

•    Compression of spinal nerves, causing pain and numbness
•    Bulging or ruptured disks. This condition might not cause pain in some people.
•    Fractured vertebrae that might leaves the spine unstable
•    Osteoporosis
•    Progressive scoliosis (curvature of the spine)
•    Progressive kyphosis (humpback deformity)
•    Progressive spinal stenosis
•    Progressive radiculopathy
•    Progressive spondylolisthesis
•    Degenerative disk disease
The major motiviation for having a spine surgery is less or no pain. Spine problems can be very painful, leading to taking high doses of pain medicines. Along with pain, the restriction on daily activities is another strong motivation. Thus, a spine surgery should be considered when :

•    The pain is severe
•    The pain has not gotten better with other treatments, such as  physical threapy
•    The usage of high doses of pain medicine is becoming a problem
•    The pain brings a restriction on daily activities and diminishing performance at work or home

Is An Orthopedic Surgeon or a Neurosurgeon better for Spine Surgery?
Most spine surgeries were mostly performed by neurosurgeons until the last 25 years. Orthopedic surgeons specialize in spine deformities, such as, scoliosis and kyphosis, while neurosurgeons are specialized in the spinal cord and nerves.  However, in the last two decades both orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons might sub-specialize in spine surgeries and perform successful surgeries in the area.  In determining what kind of a doctor should do the spine surgery, the further training, sub-specialization, the experience is what we should be looking at.

Most common procedures are:

•    Spinal fusion: Spinal fusion is among the most common spine surgeries performed. In this this type of surgery, the vertebrae (spinal bones) are joined. Supplementary bone tissue, either from the patient or a donor is used to fuse the vertebrae. This surgery is mostly performed to eliminate the pain caused by abnormal motion of the vertebrae, caused by degeneration. It might also be performed to treat spinal deformities, scoliosis and kyphosis.  After the surgery, motion of the vertebrae might be limited, but for most people, this does not limit physical activity.
•    Spinal decompression(see also): Spinal decompression refers to various surgeries intending to relieve pressure on the spian lcord and nerves.

•    Laminectomy: In this type of surgery, parts of the bone or ligaments are removed, leading to relief of pressure in spinal nerves. A spinal fusion might also be performed at the same time to avoid the risk of the spine becoming less stable.   

•    Foraminotomy: The bone at the sides of vertebrae is is cut in order to widen the space where nerve roots exit. Like in a laminectomy, the spine might become less stable and a a spinal fusion might be needed.

•    Discectomy: In discectomy the pressure is by removing the degenerative disc.

•    Corpectomy: The pressure in the upper back is relieved by removing the degenerative vertebrae.

•    Dics Replacement: In this type of surgery, the degenerated disc in the lower back is replaced  with an artificial one.  

Total /partial knee replacement (Knee Arthoplasty)

Knee is the largest joint in the body. A degeneration of injury in this area might be painful and restrict movement. Knee replacement surgeries have been performed since 1968 with successful results.

The most common causes leading to a total or partial knee replacement are:

•    Osteoarthritis
•    rheumatoid arthritis
•    haemophilia (an inherited condition that affects the blood's ability to clot)
•    gout
•    knee injury

A knee replacement surgery should be considered

•    The pain is severe
•    The pain has not gotten better with other treatments, such as  physical threapy
•    The joint problem prevents from doing daily activities
•    A cane or walker is needed to walk

The degree of degeneration will determine whether the patient should get a total or partial knee replacement. The knee consists of three main  "compartments": medial (the inside part of the knee), lateral (the outside), and patellofemoral (the joint between the kneecap and the thighbone). If two or more of these compartements are degenerated a total knee replacement comes in question. If only one of these parts is damages, a partial knee replacement might be the answer.

Total Knee Replacement

In a total kness replacement surgery, the damaged cartilage and bone is replaced by artificial parts, called prosthesis, which both have metal and plastic parts.  

This surgery makes up approximately 90% of all knee surgeries. Most surgeons believe that this surgery is a more reliable long lasting surgery than a partial knee replacement.    


2-3 hours


General anesthesia or epidural

Hospital Stay

2-3 days

Healing time

Short term healing 2 months
Full recovery  3 months-1 year

Physical therapy is an integral part of this surgery, starting right after the procedure. In most cases, patients are required to get up and move around at the same day after the procedure. Especially the first 6 weeks of physical therapy is crucial, but the patient should be active and continue with the recommended exercises.

The results of a total knee replacement surgery are excellent for 90% of the patients. It can last as long as twenty years with proper care. It should be noted that some activities, such as jogging, skiing and court sports, should be avoided after the surgery as not to wear away the prosthesis. However, staying active and doing the proper exercises is part of proper care.

Partial Knee Replacement

In a partial knee replacement only one part of the knee is replaced by prosthesis. Patients undergoing this surgery experience less pain, faster recovery time, smaller incision, and less loss of bone and blood loss.


1-2 hours


General anesthesia or epidural

Hospital Stay

1-2 days

Healing time

Short term healing 3-4 weeks
Full recovery  1-3 months

It cannot be performed to people with infectious or inflammatory arthritis (Rheumatoid, Lupus, Psoriatic ), or marked deformity. Another downsize is that most patients who have gone a partial knee replacement will have to undergo further surgeries

Total shoulder replacement and shoulder joint replacement

This procedure involves replacing damaged bone and cartilage with an implant made of metal and plastic. It is much like the hip procedure. This procedure can improve range of motion at the shoulder joint

Rotator cuff repair

The rotator cuff helps keep your shoulder anchored and helps it to move, too. A tear in the cuff can limit your range of motion and cause pain. Many times these tears can be repaired with surgery to relieve pain and improve strength and functioning of the shoulder.

Arthroscopic surgery

Arthroscopy is a method of viewing or performing surgery on a joint by use of an arthroscope, which consists of a tube, a lens, and a light source using fiber optics to visualize the surgical area. Our orthopedic surgeons perform shoulder, knee and other repairs with arthroscopy. The incision made for inserting the arthroscope is very small, and fewer stitches may be required. The advantage to arthroscopy is a smaller incision heals more quickly and there is less trauma to tissue. View an illustration.

Ankle surgery

Common causes leading to an ankle surgery are overuse of the ankle, rheumatoid arthritis, stress fractures and sprains.